Test e-bike battery quality for better performance – The success of a business depends upon the quality of the products it is offering. Similarly, in the e-bike market, it is necessary to ensure the quality and safety of its batteries. So In this blog, we will tell you how to test an e-bike battery or how to define the battery quality.
Table of Contents
Requirements for Tests
Electric bike battery testing aims to check whether it will operate safely and for a more extended period on the electric bike. So, we need to perform different tests and conduct these tests on two different levels to check the battery life and safety. After testing the e-bike batteries under these tests, we can define their quality.
At the cell level, the following are some e-bike battery tests:
- Visual Inspection
- Thermal runaway test
- Overcharge test
- Impact test
- Short circuit test
- Over-discharge test
At the pack level, the following are some e-bike battery tests:
- External short circuit test
- Internal short circuit test
- Over-discharge test
- Thermal cycling test
- Overcharge test
- Impact test
But You do not need to conduct all the tests at the same time. Because It depends upon the customer requirements or the tests necessary to get certifications in the country where your business is operating.
So these tests require:
- specialized machinery,
- trained staff,
- and essential specifications
- high battery voltage,
Now we will discuss how to conduct these tests.
Test E-bike Battery Pack
Reliability tests for an e-bike battery pack on the example of our tests:
- Short circuit test
- High-temperature test
- ESD test
- IP67 waterproof test
- Consistent temperature and humidity test
1. Short circuit test
We conduct tests in the short circuit test chamber to determine if the lithium-ion battery would catch fire and explode in the event of an electrical short. It also displays the highest current flowing through an instrument during such a test.
2. High-temperature test
We conduct a test to check the effect of high temperature on the battery. So, rising temperatures impact the chemical processes inside a battery—the rate of chemical reactions in the battery increases as the temperature rises. Lithium batteries benefit from better performance and storage capacity when exposed to higher temperatures.
In the short term, heat exposure increases battery capacity. But the harm it does throughout the battery’s lifespan means you should avoid it for as long as possible.
3. ESD test
This approach determines if environmental changes influence the components of the electronic bike battery and whether their performance is impacted. ESD guns perform contact discharges at certain kV, and air discharges up to certain kV on an e-bike battery during testing.
There must be no long-term effects of the bombardment on the electric bike’s functionality or electrical components.
Additionally, all electrical components of the e-bike battery are linked. If the battery voltage connection between these components is disturbed, there is a danger of malfunction.
The actual measurements and testing necessary take only a few minutes or less. However, erecting the test platform and placing the antennas takes some time. We put an e-bike battery in the correct position on the chassis dynamometer in the measuring chamber to obtain valid results from all tests.
4. IP67 waterproof test
IP67 evaluates electronics and sealed devices to evaluate whether they fulfill the standards for an IP (ingress protection) grade. So Lithium batteries with this globally recognized grade are resistant to dust and can endure submersion in water up to 40 inches (1 meter) in-depth for 30 minutes.
Manufacturers employ various types of electronic testing tools to guarantee compliance with IP67 requirements and conduct waterproof testing. These devices use different testing methods to determine the seal’s integrity in a controlled environment.
Your business’s product quality, warranty costs, and general reputation are contingent on your ability to keep sealed components free of contamination and leaking. Tritek provides a precise leak-testing method to close parts to IP67 requirements, freeing up your valuable time for other tasks.
5. Consistent temperature and humidity test
In this type of testing components, subsystems, and entire systems we evaluate for their performance under extreme conditions such as high temperatures and variable relative humidity.
Temperature-humidity bias tests (in which moisture is used to cause a failure in an electrical device) can be static, with constant temperature and humidity, or they can mix all of the factors mentioned above.
So, thermal and humidity tests, for example, look into how climate change impacts electronic motorcycles,
- parameter shifts,
- mechanical malfunctions,
- and the degrading of raw materials.
Temperature and humidity testing are critical components when conducting a rigorous quality control program.
Test E-bike Battery Cell
Reliability tests for an e-bike battery cell on the example of our tests:
- 55 c short circuit test
- Forced discharge test
- Crush test
- Impact test
- Drop test
- Overcharge test 10V/3C
- Temperature shock test
- Accelerated impact test
1. 55 c short circuit test
These e-bike battery tests simulate use that might result in a fire or a lithium battery rupture by short-circuiting the lithium battery from the outside. We connect external resistors to the positive and negative terminals of the battery to monitor for fire or explosion. We conduct this test under a specific temperature of 55 degrees Celsius.
2. Forced discharge test
As the number of gadgets powered by lithium-ion batteries increases, there has been a surge in the need for high precision and quality to enable various applications. Forced discharge testing is one way of addressing this demand.
The test aims to determine the maximum number of times a lithium-ion battery may be recharged and drained before degrading. The most frequent approach is to recharge and discharge at predetermined rates. Additionally, we can expose samples to temperature cycles, in which the chamber’s temperature is raised and decreased.
3. Crush test
When a lithium-ion battery pack falls from a considerable height, this mechanical test simulates the force of a collision or the impact of a battery pack hitting the ground.
The lithium-ion battery for electric bikes is fully charged when a standardized stamp is put into the cell, indicating that it is fully charged. When the force rating of the test stamp reaches its maximum, it is time to call it a day on the experiment.
After certain hours, the e-bike battery test has been completed if there are no rupture, fire, or disassembly indicators in the battery housing. It is not expected that crushing the battery would cause it to catch fire or explode.
4. Impact test
When the battery reaches a particular height, we dump it onto a hard surface. This simulates what would happen if the battery died while the device was in use.
5. Drop test
When a battery is dropped from a given height onto a hard surface, it is examined for damage. Dropping the battery should not catch fire or burst into flames.
6. Overcharge test 10V/3C
This test is carried out after the battery has been charged to its maximum capacity. Our objective is to determine if it is safe to overcharge the battery and whether this is a good idea. At specific periods of the day, it is charged to its maximum capacity at room temperature.
This is critical because, even if a customer accidentally overcharges their battery, we can be confident about the battery life that it will not do any damage.
7. Temperature shock test
During a thermal shock test, an electric bike battery pack is subjected to a temperature shift or a series of temperature changes to see how it reacts. Different materials’ thermal expansion coefficients cause strain and stress due to temperature change, resulting in thermal fatigue and destruction.
E-bike batteries undergo thermal stress by being frequently exposed to air that is either cold or hot for short periods. After a predetermined number of cycles have been performed, the battery pack is subjected to extreme temperatures. It is necessary to evaluate the battery’s capacity to tolerate temperature differences while riding electric bikes.
8. Accelerated impact test
The simplest definition of accelerated impact testing involves subjecting the electric bike battery to high levels of stress for a short period hoping that it would display the exact failure mechanisms as it would under lower stress levels over a longer length of time.
Some of the examples of additional tests that can be also conducted to test e-bike battery quality:
- Immersion test in the water
- Test for thermal runaway
- Test for puncture wounds
1. Immersion test in the water
In this case, the issue is caused by a submerged battery. When riding an electric bike, the battery will likely contact water throughout the ride. This test determines the battery’s ability to endure the test conditions.
Only a small number of the tests you may perform are included in this part of the manual. So By doing each of these tests, which are all critical in their own right, we may better understand the overall safety of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. We can ensure that our batteries are safe in various applications once we grasp their limitations.
2. Test for thermal runaway
An electrical current is delivered to a battery to raise the battery’s temperature to an exceedingly high level. We are now performing testing on the battery to see whether or not it can sustain these extreme temperatures without deteriorating or failing.
As soon as the battery reaches a specific temperature, we check it for signs of thermal runaway. So Exothermic processes happening inside the battery referred to as “thermal runaway,” have the potential to release flames or the explosion of a storm.
3. Test for puncture wounds
A tiny hole is punched or poked through the battery’s shell to conduct this test. So Following this approach, we will be able to determine whether or not the electric bike battery is still safe to use after having sustained this kind of injury. But the importance of doing this e-bike battery test cannot be overstated since it may reveal whether or not the battery is vulnerable to damage from even the slightest mishap.
How Customers Test E-bike Battery
You can simulate the use of the electric bike battery by operating the test system. Start drawing power from the battery to check that the system is up and running.
The battery is a component of the driving system. Put the motor, controller, battery, and other components through their paces to see how well they function together.
Load a Lithium Battery
At least one full charge-discharge cycle must be performed to complete full-cycle testing. You can use a DC electronic load tester to discharge your battery at a constant current and program it to meet your specific charging and discharging requirements.
The two most important things to check on an electric bike battery pack are maximum allowable battery voltage and minimum allowable battery voltage. Make sure you choose an electronic load tester that can work with the current and voltage levels you need.
The process of evaluating a communication protocol ebike battery:
The simple method is to put the battery on the electric bikes, if you have one, and observe how it functions (all the drive system).
The more difficult variant is to run a software platform. They send a message to the application to see that the CAN message is in the proper format.
How Suppliers Conduct Their Tests in Mass Production
For BMS protection features, it is required to test every single battery to know that everything works properly.
For some other tests, we need to select a lithium-ion battery at random from a production run. We can study the entire electric bike battery population by using random sampling.
How to Get a Quality Battery?
Tritek is a well-established maker of long-term electric bike batteries with over a decade of experience. We design and produce the whole lithium battery pack for light electric bikes, from the battery management system (BMS) to the battery itself, both secure and intelligent.
Using Tritek’s battery protection devices, which are available for purchase online, may prevent over-discharging and short-circuiting of electric bike batteries.
It monitors and reacts to SOH, SOC, and DoD events with the aid of the balancing status indicator. Tritek can assist you in achieving success in your company.
Please get in touch with us as soon as possible to get things started. If you have any questions or issues concerning the batteries we offer, please do not hesitate to contact us.